1. Fundamentals of Surveying

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Surveying may be defined as tie method of making measurements of the relative positions of, natural & man-made features on earth’s surface and the presentation of this information either, graphically or numerically.

The commonest methods of presentation are by means of a Plan or Map.

Both Plans and Maps are the graphical representations of the features on a horizontal plane.

Plan is a large scale representation whereas Map is a small scale representation.  .

Height information can be added either as spot heights, which are individual heights of points, or as contours which give a less detailed but better visual representation of the area.

Surveying is divided primarily into Geodetic surveying & Plane surveying.

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