2. Linear Measurements

Surveying is often referred to as chain surveying (or tape and offset surveying), if the principal item of equipment traditionally used is a measuring chain tape.

Now a days, as a result of improvements in manufacturing techniques and a consequential reduction in purchase price, the chain has been replaced by the more accurate steel band.

Chain surveying is used for areas of small extent on open ground having few simple details. It is not suitable for large areas having many details.

In surveying, the term detail means a natural or man-made feature at or near the ground surface. It consists of

  1. Hard details such as buildings, roads, walls;
  2. Soft details; such as a vegetations, trees, river;
  3. Overhead details, such as power and telephone lines
  4. Underground details, such as water mains, sewers.

Chain surveying consists of measuring the lengths of a series of straight lines with tape/chain and then locating the details on the ground relative to these lines.

The details are located by measuring two other lines, known as ties or by measuring offsets at right angles to the mam survey line.

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